João Paulo C.B. da Silva, Marcelo R. de Carvalho
Potamotrygon tatianae sp. nov., is described from Río Madre de Díos, Peru, upper Rio Madeira basin. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by a unique combination of characters, including its dorsal color pattern formed by a relatively slender, highly convoluted, beige to dark brown vermicular pattern, a single row of dorsal tail spines, and a relatively longer tail posterior to caudal stings. Potamotrygon tatianae sp. nov., occurs sympatrically with other species of Potamotrygon (P. falkneri, P. orbignyi and P. motoro). From the similar species P. falkneri, P. tatianae sp. nov., is further distinguished by the absence of circular, reniform, and oval spots, by its proportionally much longer tail, by having dorsal tail spines in one irregular row, and by features of the ventral lateral-line canal, dermal denticles and neurocranium. From P. orbignyi, the new species is distinct by lacking a reticulate pattern on dorsal disc and by the presence of two angular cartilages. From P. motoro, P. tatianae sp. nov., is further separated by the lack of ocelli formed by strong black concentric rings, by the more flattened aspect of its head and disc, and by having smaller and more numerous teeth. The discovery of a new species that so closely resembles a congeneric form in color pattern, a feature highly variable within the latter, highlights the importance of examining large series of individuals and of detailed morphological analyses in revealing the potentially highly cryptic nature of the diversity within the family.